Do you know that manual resuscitator (bag valve mask-BMV, commonly called “Ambu bag”), which in many hospitals stays on the countertops waiting to be reused for days, including for manual hyperinsufflation maneuvers?
Yes, they can contribute (and a lot!) To increase the risk of pneumonia!
A paper presented in the Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM) 42nd Critical Care Congress, por Rasnake et al, with rescuers of 147 patients found that bacterial cultures increased every two days, although they visually appeared clean.
They also observed that the more the device is manipulated, the greater the colonization.
One more reason to think about carrying out the hygienization and constant sterilization of these devices, and also to perform the same patient swapping!